Curator’s Corner. Historical archaeology is not a subject that I usually approach, because I am not trained to properly register sites, map, excavate and write archaeological reports. As a Decorative Arts Curator with knowledge of American, European and Oriental pottery and porcelain, I have frequently been requested to identify pottery and porcelain fragments in the laboratory after they have been excavated, cleaned and numbered. Sometimes I see lots of little broken pieces of white pottery pipe stems which have been recovered from excavations of homes and taverns. They exist because a 17th or 18th century smoker did not carry a pipe and tobacco supply with him. Cigars and cigarettes were not known then. He usually smoked a pipeful of tobacco at home or in an inn or tavern.
Pipe stem dating
A tobacco pipe , often called simply a pipe , is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco. It comprises a chamber the bowl for the tobacco from which a thin hollow stem shank emerges, ending in a mouthpiece. Pipes can range from very simple machine-made briar models to highly prized hand-made artisanal implements made by renowned pipemakers, which are often very expensive collector’s items. Pipe smoking is the oldest known traditional form of tobacco smoking. Some Native American cultures smoke tobacco in ceremonial pipes , and have done so since long before the arrival of Europeans.
Other American Indian cultures smoke tobacco socially.
Pipe Stem Dating Activity Grades In this activity, students analyze tobacco pipe stem fragments from Jamestown to determine when past people formed the.
This hand-crafted whistle was fashioned from the stem of a discarded clay smoking pipe. Small rustic flutes were frequently illustrated in Dutch paintings alongside depictions of clay tobacco pipes, indicating the prevalence of both of these items of material culture in the Dutch household. The deposition suggests that this flute and whistle-making custom was perhaps continued through the generations, or that the deposit was mixed with material that dated to an earlier time period. Ball Clay. A sheet midden deposited between and was uncovered in a natural depression to the west of the Matron’s Cottage on the former grounds of Sailors’ Snug Harbor, one of the first retirement homes in the United States Rothschild Research Center.
Collections Education Reports About. Clay Pipe Stem Whistle. Archaeological Details. Part of Project.
Put This in Your Pipe and Smoke it : An Evaluation of Tobacco Pipe Stem Dating Methods
Results further corroborate regression dating, if it needs it, and document qualified but statistically significant correlations between dispersion and occupation span. In the process, they strengthen links between historical and prehistoric archaeology in the science of material culture. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
To date, the only direct biomolecular evidence of tobacco smoking in As expected, a Euro-American–style pipestem dating to the early s.
An Evaluation of Tobacco Pipe Stem Dating Formulas.
No one knows for sure who made the first clay pipes. The idea of smoking tobacco came from the American Indian, who had long fashioned their own clay pipes. These, no doubt served as a model for later pipe development.
Abstract: There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th and 18th century sites using imported English clay tobacco pipe stems based on Harrington’s histogram of time periods; Binford’s linear formula Hanson’s formulas and the Heighton and Deagan formula. Pipe stem bore diameter data were collected from 26 sites in Maryland Virginia North Carolina and South Carolina in order to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods. Of the formulas the Heighton and Deagan proved to be the most accurate producing formula mean dates closest to the dates assigned to the sites using other dating techniques.
It was also determined that all three formula dating methods work better in Maryland and Virginia than in North and South Carolina. Other aspects of pipe stem dating were explored in this paper including regional consumption patterns and the influences Dutch pipes have on formula dating. These questions were addressed specifically on sites from the Chesapeake.
This analysis supports recent assertions that the Chesapeake should be split into two sub-regions the Upper and Lower Chesapeake.
The Art and Archaeology of Clay Pipes
I tried to contact the author of this article in various ways but never succeeded, therefore I have translated it as closely as possible. I’d like to thank Alan Chestnutt of Reborn Briar like myself, user of pipesmokerunlimited forum for having helped me by reviewing the translation of this essay. If you have any question about the translation feel free to email me at mailto:bumperballdub mail.
), t:[ J. C. Harrington, ‘Dating Stem Fragments of 17th and 18th century Clay Tobacco Pipes’, Quarterly Bulletin.
The skill and experience of the individual undertaking the work will play a large part in determining how accurate and reliable any assessment of dating is, and specialist advice should certainly be taken when dealing with large assemblages or those where the pipe dating is fundamental to the excavated deposits. But it is certainly possible for a good assessment of date to be made by considering the key characteristics of any given pipe or pipe assemblage, guidelines for which are given below.
They can be used to indicate whether a context group is likely to contain residual material, or whether it represents a coherent and potentially tightly dated group. They can also be used to check any dates provided by associated bowl forms, marks or decoration, which can be especially useful for smaller contexts where only a few such pieces are present.
There are always exceptions but, in broad terms, stems can usually be allocated to one of three general date ranges by assessing their form, stem bore, fabric and finish. As a result, fragments usually show a clear taper along their length and can be quite chunky if the fragment comes from near the bowl. Some pipes were burnished during this period and many areas of the Midlands and northern England exploited local clays, where these were available.
A fine sandy fabric was used in the Oxford area and pipes from areas with access to the Coal Measures often employed clays with opaque white gritty inclusions in them. Stem stamps are only rarely found. As a result, they are generally rather cylindrical in appearance with less evidence of any stem taper.
Pipe makers’ marks – Page 2
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pipe-stem dating: CATEGORY: technique. DEFINITION: A method of calculating the date of American Colonial assemblages based on the variation in hole.
Barling pipes from this period show a remarkable degree of variation when it comes to nomenclature. The following information can be applied in a general fashion. According to Tad Gage, Pre pipes are minimal. Pre WW2 pipes rarely have size, shape or grading. But pipes have surfaced, hallmarked as early as with size marks, and as early as with estate numbers. There may be earlier examples, and when we see them we will revise the dates.
Examples with silver hallmarks illustrate that a old dating in estate occurred around , although clearly the war and London bombings impacted production of silver-mounted and of all English pipes. More on that possibility in a moment.